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I started my research career in 1993 when I began my PhD. I took a year out in the middle to work as a research associate with Edinburgh university, and returned to complete my PhD on time.

Although I began working in unsupervised machine learning, I soon began a couple of RA positions on supervised learning — one, on learning within bounds, at the Engineering Maths Department in Bristol, and the other on a cutting-edge bioinformatics (metabolomics) project back at Aberystwyth.

Having been awarded a lectureship, I focussed Evolutionary Computation and in particular I was involved in Artificial Immune Systems, including helping set up the first ICARIS conference at Kent. I continued to work in EC and AIS until 2010, when I quit most of my academic work to set up my own business.

I have maintained links to two small research projects: one on a new type of clustering, and another on simulation in Law.

The areas in which I have published can be found in the list, right.


  • RA Projects
    • Intelligent robotics via schema learning (Edinburgh, Psychology).
    • Learning within probability bounds (Bristol, Engineering Maths).
    • Metabolic pathway induction (Aberystwyth, Bioinformatics Laboratory).
  • Lectureship Research
    • Evolutionary Computation
    • Artificial Immune Systems and modelling
    • Clustering and Machine Learning
  • Subsequent research
    • Simulation and modelling in Law
    • New (best-in-class) forms of clustering